Review Article
JBCGenetics. 2018; 1(1): 10-18

Syndactyly genes and classification: a mini review

Authors: Muhammad Umair, Farooq Ahmad, Muhammad Bilal, Safdar Abbas.

View PDF HTML Fulltext DOI: 10.24911/JBCGenetics/183-1532177257

Abstract

Syndactyly (Syn = together; Dactylos = digits) is the most common limb defect mostly characterized by webbing of digits. It may be webbing with or without bony fusion and inherited mostly in autosomal dominant manner, although also reported as autosomal recessive, X-linked or isolated entity. It also shows diverse clinical and phenotypic heterogeneity and mostly observed as unilateral or bilateral and symmetrical or asymmetrical forms. Syndactyly mostly occurs either as an isolated anomaly or as a part of a complex syndrome (+150 syndromes). Here, non-syndromic syndactyly has been classified according to genetic and molecular basis. The non-syndromic syndactyly has been classified into nine different types. Up till now, the major genes identified to cause hereditary syndactyly are mainly involved in the sonic hedgehog pathway and zone of polarizing activity. The present review mostly focuses on summarizing the recent advances in molecular genetics, including known genes and loci responsible for non-syndromic syndactyly. The present review will contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis underlying non-syndromic and syndromic syndactyly, improving clinical and molecular diagnosis; thus, making genetic counseling and prenatal testing easier in future. Keywords: Limb malformation, syndactyly, digit webbing, molecular genetics.

Keywords:   Limb Malformation, Syndactyly, Digit webbing, Molecular genetics


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Syndactyly genes and classification: a mini review


Authors
Muhammad Umair
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Farooq Ahmad
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Muhammad Bilal
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles

Safdar Abbas
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
PubMed articlesGoogle scholar articles


Correspondence to:
. Muhammad Umair, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan; khugoo4u@yahoo.com

Publication history
Received 19 Oct 2017
Revised 23 Nov 2017
Accepted 07 Dec 2017
Published in print 01 Jan 2018

How to cite this article

Pubmed Style

Umair M, Ahmad F, Bilal M, Abbas S. Syndactyly genes and classification: a mini review. JBCGenetics. 2018; 1(1): 10-18. doi:10.24911/JBCGenetics/183-1532177257


Web Style

Umair M, Ahmad F, Bilal M, Abbas S. Syndactyly genes and classification: a mini review. https://www.jbcgenetics.com//?mno=2066 [Access: December 13, 2018]. doi:10.24911/JBCGenetics/183-1532177257


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Umair M, Ahmad F, Bilal M, Abbas S. Syndactyly genes and classification: a mini review. JBCGenetics. 2018; 1(1): 10-18. doi:10.24911/JBCGenetics/183-1532177257


Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Umair M, Ahmad F, Bilal M, Abbas S. Syndactyly genes and classification: a mini review. JBCGenetics. (2018), [cited December 13, 2018]; 1(1): 10-18. doi:10.24911/JBCGenetics/183-1532177257


Harvard Style

Umair, M., Ahmad, . F., Bilal, . M. & Abbas, . S. (2018) Syndactyly genes and classification: a mini review. JBCGenetics, 1 (1), 10-18. doi:10.24911/JBCGenetics/183-1532177257


Turabian Style

Umair, Muhammad, Farooq Ahmad, Muhammad Bilal, and Safdar Abbas. 2018. Syndactyly genes and classification: a mini review. Journal of Biochemical and Clinical Genetics, 1 (1), 10-18. doi:10.24911/JBCGenetics/183-1532177257


Chicago Style

Umair, Muhammad, Farooq Ahmad, Muhammad Bilal, and Safdar Abbas. "Syndactyly genes and classification: a mini review." Journal of Biochemical and Clinical Genetics 1 (2018), 10-18. doi:10.24911/JBCGenetics/183-1532177257


MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Umair, Muhammad, Farooq Ahmad, Muhammad Bilal, and Safdar Abbas. "Syndactyly genes and classification: a mini review." Journal of Biochemical and Clinical Genetics 1.1 (2018), 10-18. Print. doi:10.24911/JBCGenetics/183-1532177257


APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Umair, M., Ahmad, . F., Bilal, . M. & Abbas, . S. (2018) Syndactyly genes and classification: a mini review. Journal of Biochemical and Clinical Genetics, 1 (1), 10-18. doi:10.24911/JBCGenetics/183-1532177257


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